To recoup the costs of the extra Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) used for screening patients for COVID-19 symptoms prior to treatments (i.e., taking the patient's temperature, etc.), can we report D0190, screening of patient?

No, D0190 reports a screening to determine the patient’s need to be seen by a dentist for an evaluation.If the practice elects to charge an extra fee for PPE fee, then use D1999 by report. Reimbursement is unlikely. Refer to your state law and PPO contract prior to implementing a fee for PPE.